Having been coding for 16 years now (I started quite young), I have seen a lot of bad code. Code is not good just because it works. So here’s a quick list of 10 advice that you’d better keep in mind while coding.
Don’t sacrifice code maintainability to performance, unless it’s strictly necessary.
This happens very often. You have to consider that your code is likely to be read by many persons, and some of them will read it after you might have parted from that company. Remember that you won’t remember what your own code does after few weeks. So always try to put things in the most readable and obvious form, even if this will require writing more lines of code, or having less performing code. Of course this is not so important if performance is your number one issue. Try, for instance, to avoid use of the
?:operator in C/C++. Everybody will understand it anyway, but a good old
ifstatement will do it, so why not going for it?
Be precise as a Swiss clock, when it comes to naming conventions.
Nobody wants to read class names or variable names that look like gibberish. Don’t be mean on the keyboard: when you type, remember that somebody else will have to read it, so be extensive.
Name your variable
items_n. Don’t use cryptic prefixes to class name. Name your class
CMOpFunctor. It’s a lot more typing for you, but a lot less hassle reading for the ones that will come after you.
Don’t change your conventions. If you’re calling the iterators
i, don’t call any of them
n, ever. You will induce confusion to your reader. It doesn’t seem as important as it actually is. If you call a class
ClientMessageBlockContact, then do not have
ServerMessageContactBlock. Be perfect, be precise, be obsessed.
Use a good and consistent indentation style.
Never ever have more than one blank line. Don’t have trailing spaces at the end of the lines. Don’t have blank spaces or TAB characters in blank lines. A blank line must be blank, that is.Be consistent: don’t use TABs to indent in one file, and spaces in another one. Possibly, use 8-chars wide TABs to indent. If you find yourself going beyond 80 rows too often, then that could be an indication that there might be some design flaws in your program. Tweak your editor to show you the end-of-line character and the TABs.
One class, one file.
Don’t write files like
ServerMessages.hwhere you write all the class that are
ServerMessages. One class goes in one file. If you find yourself thinking that you can’t do it, review your design.
In C/C++, project includes use “”, dependency includes use <>.
If you’re including a file that’s local to your project,
use #include "file.h"; if it’s an external dependency, do
#include <file.h>. Why? I’ve seen people including
<file.h>and then just put things like
/usr/includes/my_projectin the inclusions search path, so that nobody will be able to compile before installing. That’s a bad assumption. And you don’t want to end up in that error.
Always compile with
-ansi -pedantic -Wall -Werrorflags (or similar, according to your compiler).
Let’s adhere to standards. Let’s avoid warnings. A warning might become an error in the future.
Use TODOs and FIXMEs.
If you know that you, or somebody else, will have to return on a certain piece of code to add or modify some functionality, please mark it with a TODO. If you know that a piece of code is buggy but you can’t fix it right now, add a FIXME marker. Later on, it will be easy to grep the source tree for TODOs and FIXMEs and analyze them, especially if they’re very well commented.
Comment your own code.
Seriously: you’re going to forget, sooner than you think. Just invest 5% of your time in writing commented code. Never assume that code is self-explanatory, just write a couple of lines for everything you do. Comments are not only meant to generate doxygen documentation. You have to assume that somebody else will read your code and need to modify/extend it.
Use a versioning system even if you’re working alone.
Yes, versioning is not just for working in a team. Use Darcs or SVN even if you’re working alone: you won’t regret it. Commit often and try to be professional all the time. Later on somebody else might join you. Or then you might find useful to revert to previous versions of your program. And it will help you to keep trace of what you’re doing.
Use a bug tracking system even if you’re working alone.
Things like Bugzilla are EXTREMELY useful. Usually you will forget bout a bug after less than 2 days. Everytime you find a bug, either fix it immediately, or mark it to your personal bugzilla. And always fix bugs first, and then write new code.
- It compiles, so it works.
- It works here, so it works everywhere.
- Commenting? We don’t have time to waste, we gotta ship!
- Plan code so that we can reuse it is useless: we’ll end up writing everything from scratch anyway.
- Unit tests are a waste of time.